Asian development bank, optimizing water use in kathmandu valley project, 2001 16 yoshida m (1988) magnetostratigraphy of plio-pleistocene lacustrine deposits in the kathmandu valley, central nepal. Un-habitat's cities and climate change initiative promotes enhanced climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing country cities this document is an initial output of the cities and climate change initiative activities in the kathmandu valley of nepal. Water quality data were sampled from the groundwater aquifers, including samples from dug wells, shallow tube wells and deep tube wells, in kathmandu valley, the main urban centre of nepal (fig 1) kathmandu valley includes five of the 58 municipalities of the country, including three major cities kathmandu, lalitpur and bhaktapur. The kathmandu valley which nestles capital of nepal is located in central part of the country in between 27°32'13- 27°49'10 n latitudes and 85°11'31- 85°31'38 e longitudes (fig 1. 2011, kathmandu valley groundwater outlook, published by ait, the small earth nepal, centre for research for environment energy and water.
Groundwater in kathmandu valley is closely related to livelihood and wellbeing of the people the dependence of the people on groundwater has increased in the recent years to meet the ever increasing domestic, commercial and industrial water needs. The rapid and haphazard urbanization in kathmandu valley and expansion of built-up area to the peripheral rural landscapes has resulted to formation of peri- urban areas which are now transforming into urban form. According to the world bank, the kathmandu valley's population, estimated at 25 million people, is growing at a rate of 4% per annum almost 20 years ago, the melamchi water supply project (mwsp) was designed to address the rapidly growing demand for water in the valley.
1 introduction groundwater has been an important source of water supply in kathmandu valley since the time immemorial the key means of accessing groundwater, however, has been advanced towards mechanized extractions from traditional ones (eg, stone spouts, sprints, dug wells and infiltration galleries) used during ancient times. Paper aims to unfold how perceptions of groundwater in kathmandu valley, nepal, are changing from an open-access resource to an overexploited, depleted, degraded, vulnerable and state-controlled resource. Sustainable mountain development no 56, icimod, winter 2009 27 rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge for water storage in the kathmandu valley. The kathmandu valley development authority act, 2045 (bs) empowers the authorities to regulate the environ- mental situation of the valley in a more holistic manner.
Ploited for water supply in 1970 in the valley mechanized extraction of groundwater resources began in 1984 groundwater is an important water resource in the kathmandu valley it contributes about 50% of the total wa-ter supply in the valley  in dry season, 60% to 70% of the water supply is met by ground water [11. Kathmandu valley are less contaminated with fecal indicator organisms than the shallow groundwater sources most of the groundwater samples tested in the study were. The kathmandu valley groundwater basin can be isolated from other groundwater organic structures outsides the vale the recharge through outside the vale is assumed to be negligible the groundwater degrees have been in about steady status in the early phases of the 1980 's, because no big good was operated at that clip in the basin. In the groundwater of the valley 5,6 kathmandu valley is a closed basin with gentle slopes towards the centre, the groundwater flow is assumed slow, particularly.
The land area of the kathmandu valley is 600 square kilometers (sq km) in which about 400 sq km is the valley floor towards the center, the remaining 200 sq km area. Though the annual precipitation of kathmandu valley is quite high page 28) groundwater quality of kathmandu valley: the groundwater quality in the kathmandu valley is also contaminated due to polluted surface water. With the background of wide usage and the poor microbial quality of groundwater, as well as the lack of investigations regarding their relationship with diarrhoea, this study analyses the microbial quality of the groundwater as a determinant of diarrhoea in the kathmandu valley. In particular to kathmandu valley, the recently finalized groundwater management and regulation policy (as discussed in section 322), which is waiting for approval from the line ministry, suggests for amending existing water resources act (1992) to make legal provisions for groundwater management in kathmandu valley in the absence of legal.
Kathmandu valley has been suffering from water shortage since the 1980s, and the situation is getting worse this paper discusses the potential of rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge into shallow and deef aquifers for reversing the trend of water resources exploitation and groundwater depletion. Context common sense: something hidden is valuable • gw is hidden resources gw is an important resource for socio-economic development dr vishnu p pandey guest lecture | summer course | 13 th nov 2016 gw from an open-access to state-controlled resource 9. About 50% of the urban water supply in the kathmandu valley is derived from groundwater sources which include the shallow and deep aquifers   in recent years, water demand of valley has been raised by.
A study was carried out to assess the water quality situation of groundwater sources in kathmandu valley, nepal groundwater has remained to be a major water supply source for a population of 15 million at present in the valley. Universidade de aveiro 2011 departamento de ambiente e ordenamento ganesh kc numerical modeling of groundwater in kathmandu valley, nepal funded by erasmus mundus mobility for life project of the european. It is popularly summarized that the kathmandu valley's groundwater crisis is reflected in terms of depletion in groundwater level, decline in design yield of wells, degradation of groundwater quality and shrinking aquifer volume due to land subsidence (pandey et al, 2012, p 7.